art research since 2k00



A Constitution for Mars?

Against the background of a Mars photograph in red and brown tones, the text is spread over 3 lines, filling the picture in grey capital letters: A Constitution for Mars?


Against the backdrop of a full-frame Hubble space photograph, the question to SpaceX's general counsel is written in blue lettering: Once a colony is established on Mars, will it be under U.S. jurisdiction? His answer is written below in a frame with a blue background and mercury-colored lettering: I'm actually working on a constitution for Mars. No country can claim sovereignty over heavenly bodies

SpaceX and Starlink Service Terms, 2020

Against the backdrop of a full-frame Hubble space photograph, blue lettering reads as a quote from the SpaceX and Starlink Terms of 2020: Governing Law. Die näheren Ausführungen dazu finden sich darunter in einem Rahmen mit blauem Hintergrund und quecksilber-farbener Schrift: For Services provided on Mars, or in transit to Mars via Starship or other colonization spacecraft, the parties recognize Mars as a free planet and that no Earth-based government has authority or sovereignty over Martian activities. Accordingly, Disputes will be settled through self-governing principles, established in good faith, at the time of Martian settlement.

Mars flight plans

Black and white image of two people next to a space rocket. One person carries an open laptop on one arm and writes with the other hand, the other person stretches out an arm to explain the world. As early as the Apollo program (1961-1972), there were initial NASA concepts to fly to Mars. In 1992 and again in 2004, the two U.S. presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush presented programs for missions with passengers to the Moon and Mars.

From June 3, 2010 to November 4, 2011, the space agencies of Russia (ROSCOSMOS), Europe (ESA), and China (CNSA) jointly conducted the Mars-500 experiment near Moscow, which was designed to provide insights into group dynamics, person aptitude, behavioral responses to problems, and so on.

In 2013, Elon Musk's company SpaceX announced that it was working on a transport system to Mars. Since then, SpaceX has completed numerous development steps, which now hold out the prospect of Mars flights with around 100 people for 2026.
Amazon founder Jeff Bezos' company Blue Origin also announced in 2016 that it wanted to fly to the moon and Mars.

What do 52 experts have to say about SpaceX's intentions?

Against the background of a Mars photograph in red and brown tones, 50 gray, 7 orange, labeled circles are distributed in 7 horizontal rows. The labels are: SpaceX ASTRONAUT, SPACE EXPLORERS, ESA, ROSCOSMOS, CNSA, MZ, NASA, SPACE LAW, IISL, ETO, ETO Member, UNCOPUOS, OHCHR, UNOOSA, UNSecGen and UN Dep SecGen.

ESA, Association of Space Explorers, UNHCHR, UNCOPUOS

Four dark frames, each containing a response from the ESA Director General, the Association of Space Explorers, from the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and from the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, each in English and German

Space explorer | Astronaut

A dark frame containing the answer of the astronaut Ulrich Walter in German and English translation

ETO Consortium Member

A dark frame containing the response of ETO consotium member Sarah Joseph in English and German translation

University of Cologne | Institute of Air Law, Space Law and Cyber Law

A dark frame containing the answer of the head of the institute for air law, space law and cyber law at the University of Cologne Stephan Hobe in English and German translation